ΑΒΕΡΩΦ

Διαδικτυακό Θωρηκτό

  • Ἡ Ἱστορία,ΔΕΝ ἀλλάζει !

  • Ἡ Μακεδονία εἶναι Ε Λ Λ Α Δ Α

  • Πρόσφατα άρθρα

  • Kατηγορίες

  • Υπέρ της ζωής, κατά των εκτρώσεων

  • ΓΙΑ ΣΥΝΔΡΟΜΕΣ

  • Η ΒΟΡ.ΗΠΕΙΡΟΣ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ

  • Ἀπό τήν Φλωρεντία,στήν ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΙΑ

  • ΜΕΤΑΜΟΥΣΕΙΟΝ – Θ/Κ «Γ.ΑΒΕΡΩΦ»

  • Μαθαίνουμε…

  • ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΙΚΗ

  • ΣΥΝΤΑΚΤΙΚΟΝ

  • ΝΕΩΤΕΡΟ ΕΓΚΥΚΛΟΠΑΙΔΙΚΟ ΛΕΞΙΚΟ «ΗΛΙΟΥ»

  • ΜΕΓΑ ΛΕΞΙΚΟΝ (Δ.ΔΗΜΗΤΡΑΚΟΥ)

  • ΛΕΞΙΚΟΝ ΗΣΥΧΙΟΥ

  • ΛΕΞΙΚΟΝ «LIDDEL-SCOTT»

  • ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΜΥΘΟΛΟΓΙΑ

  • ΑΡΧΑΙΟΛΟΓΙΑ

  • 324 – 1453

  • ΧΡΟΝΙΚΟΝ ΤΗΣ ΑΛΩΣΕΩΣ

  • 1 8 2 1

  • Ἀπομνημονεύματα Ἡρώων τοῦ 1821

  • Ὁ ΕΛΛΗΝΟ – ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΟΣ ΠΟΛΕΜΟΣ τοῦ…

  • ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΚΟΣ ΑΓΩΝ (1904-8)

  • ΒΑΛΚΑΝΙΚΟΙ ΠΟΛΕΜΟΙ ’12- ’13

  • ΤΟ ΠΝ ΤΙΜΑ ΤΟΥΣ ΒΑΛΚΑΝΙΚΟΥΣ

  • Α’ ΠΠ (1914-18)

  • Μ.ΑΣΙΑ (1919-22)

  • O X I (1940-41)

  • ΙΩΑΝ.ΜΕΤΑΞΑΣ

  • ΕΑΡΙΝΗ ΕΠΙΘΕΣΙΣ (9-24 Μαρ.1941)

  • Η ΜΑΧΗ ΤΩΝ ΟΧΥΡΩΝ (1941)

  • Η ΜΑΧΗ ΤΗΣ ΚΡΗΤΗΣ (1941)

  • Β’ ΠΠ (1 9 4 1 – 4)

  • ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ ΤΟΥ Θ/Κ «ΓΕΩΡ. ΑΒΕΡΩΦ»

  • ΘΕΟΔΩΡΟΣ ΚΟΛΟΚΟΤΡΩΝΗΣ

  • ΙΩΑΝΝΗΣ ΚΑΠΟΔΙΣΤΡΙΑΣ

  • ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΣ ΣΟΛΩΜΟΣ

  • ΕΓΕΡΤΗΡΙΟΝ ΣΑΛΠΙΣΜΑ

  • Πρόσφατα σχόλια

    Παναγιωτης σχοινεζος στη Συνταγματάρχης Δημήτρης Θεοτόκ…
    ΘΑΝΟΣ ΚΟΥΚ στη Gatestone Institute: Στην Ευρώ…
    PETSAGGOURAKIS στη Μελέτιος Μεταξάκης, ο μασώνος…
    Makis στη Η Ληστοκρατία στην Ελλάδα: « Φ…
    Πετροβούβαλος στη Συνταγματάρχης Δημήτρης Θεοτόκ…
  • Ὁ Γκρεμιστής Κωστῆ Παλαμᾶ

  • Θ/Κ «Γ. ΑΒΕΡΩΦ» ΣΗΜΑ 3 Δεκ.1912

  • ΟΡΚΟΣ ΕΦΗΒΩΝ

  • ΟΡΚΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΦΙΛΙΚΩΝ

  • ——————————

  • ΦΟΡΕΣΙΕΣ καί ΑΡΜΑΤΑ τοῦ ’21

  • Η ΟΜΙΛΙΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΝΥΚΑ (1838)

  • ΠΑΥΛΟΣ ΜΕΛΑΣ (1974) …ἡ ταινία

  • ΒΟΥΛΓΑΡΙΚΑΙ ΩΜΟΤΗΤΕΣ

  • Μία ἀνοικτή πληγή Μνήμης 1914-23

  • Η ΜΑΥΡΗ ΒΙΒΛΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΚΑΤΟΧΗΣ

  • ——————————

  • Ζημίαι τῶν ἀρχαιοτήτων έκ τοῦ πολέμου καί τῶν στρατευμάτων κατοχῆς (1946)

  • Ο ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝ ΑΡΧΑΙΟΛΟΓΟΣ

  • ΘΑ ΑΝΟΙΞΗι Ο ΦΑΚΕΛΛΟΣ ;

  • ΑΘΑΝΑΤΟΙ !!!

  • 1944-49

  • ΑΓΕΛΑΣΤΟΣ ΠΕΤΡΑ

  • ΣΕΜΝΩΝ ΘΕΩΝ

  • ΟΙ ΤΥΜΒΩΡΥΧΟΙ ΤΩΝ ΘΕΩΝ

  • ΔΙΟΛΚΟΣ,ΓΙΑ 1500 ΧΡΟΝΙΑ

  • ΤΟ ΘΑΥΜΑ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ

  • ΟΧΙ ΣΤΟ ΤΖΑΜΙ

  • M.K.I.E.

  • Γιά ἀποπληρωμή ἐξωτ.χρεῶν,μόνο…

  • Ἡ ἔξοδός μας,εἶναι ἡ Κ_ _ _ά _α τους !

  • ΜΗΝ ΑΝΗΣΥΧΕΙΣ…

  • INSIDE JOB

The Greek Civilizer of the World Alexander the Great: Revenue (Πόροι) and Expenditures (Δαπάναι) of his Campaign from Greece to India

Posted by Μέλια στο 12 Φεβρουαρίου, 2022

.

by Dr. John N. Kallianiotis
University of Scranton
Scranton, PA, U.S.A

«Εὐγνωμονῶ τοῖς θεοῖς ὅτι ἐγεννήθην Ἕλλην…»
Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος

Α΄. Prologue

Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης) views life exclusively as political life, and history in terms of political history.The economic policy of a leader or of a government covers the system’s operation by setting levels of taxation (φόροι), government revenue (πόροι) and expenditures (δαπάναι), government budgets, and other functions. The philosophy (science) of Oeconomicos (misspelled Economics) and economic policy were developed by Xenophon (Ξενοφῶν; 430-354 B.C.) in Ancient Greece. Alexander the Great (Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος; 356-323 B.C.) was living a little later in the 4th century B.C. and we know him as a great Greek (Hellen) general, leader, and civilizer. But, he was at the same time, an excellent oeconomologos (economist) because he had to manage the economy of his wars, his enormous campaign from North Greece (Macedonia) to India (Hindus River). He had to exercise an efficient and effective public policy (revenue and spending) for his vast Empire and to satisfy all its citizens as a Hellenic civilizer and not as a conqueror.

Also, “he desired not pleasure or wealth, but only excellence and glory”, which was the moral and ethical Greek philosophy of his time.  At a point, Alexander said that “…I am grateful to gods that I was borne Hellen…” and had all these Hellenic values, which made him one of the most important person in human history. Of course, as a student of the greatest of philosophers Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης; 384-322 B.C.), he has shown outstanding management capabilities (although military budgets contained more or less what budgets of states comprised). His efficiencies with rates of salaries, health and welfare, building projects, supplies, transports, reforms of the tax system, indirect taxes and donations, loans, minting of coins (currency); even his dealing with financial scandals and other actions are information useful for our policy makers, today, and they were all excellent. We will present his contribution to the world as the greatest civilizer and preparer of the ground for the expected “Unknown God”.

We will measure his budgets (revenues and spending) by using the weights of gold and silver coins and determine and compare prices by taking this information from different historians of his time. Alexander economic policy is very useful for our current leaders and scholars. Also, the history and the role of this extraordinary man and of the Greek language in God’s plan, for His revolted and deluded creation and humanity to be in a position to understand and accept His revelation, which Greeks were expecting His coming since 5th century B.C. (the Golden Century of Athens), is discussed extensively. Finally, the current politics of the region are covered to give to the reader a better idea of the true history of the glorious past and the dishonorable conflicts of the present, with the support from the new crusaders of the West. Many useful information on numismatics (currency, coins, and their value) from that Ancient Greek period are given, so we can compare prices, wages, and exchange rates with respect of the U.S. dollar and the Greek drachma.

Β΄. Alexander’s Contribution to the World

Hellenism’s contribution to the world is known to everyone, but one of its greatest offers was with its offspring Alexander the Great (ΜέγαςἈλέξανδρος). Alexander III Macedon (July 20, 356-June 11, 323 B.C.) earned the epithet, “the Great”, due to his unparalleled success as a king, a military commander, and a civilizer of the known world at that time.[1] He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered. This was due to use of terrain, phalanx (φάλαγξ) and cavalry tactics, bold strategy, and the fierce loyalty of his troops. He always was personally involved in battles, in the manner of a Macedonian king and Greek biographers and Greek historians confirm it in their writings.Greek biographer Plutarch (Πλούταρχος; c. 45–120 A.D.) was so impressed with him that he describes Alexander’s appearance as a model,[2] as we can see from his statues. Greek historian Lucius Flavius Arrianus ‘Xenophon’ or Arrian (Ἀρριανός, c. 86–160 A.D.) described Alexander as: “[T]he strong, handsome commander with one eye dark as the night and one blue as the sky.”[3] Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos (Λύσιππος)[4] that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image. Lysippos’ sculpture, famous for its naturalism, as opposed to a stiffer, more static pose, is thought to be the most faithful depiction. Alexander the Great is the most admired leader in human history,[5] because he had, as it was mentioned, an unparalleled success as a military commander and a civilizer of the known world at that time.[6]

Of course, some of Alexander’s strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents.[7] His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe that it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.[8] Olympias’ influence instilled a sense of destiny in him; of course, without preventing God’s Providence. Plutarch tells us that his ambition “kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years”.[9]However, his father Philip II (382-336 B.C.) was Alexander’s most immediate and influential role model, as the young Alexander watched him campaign practically every year, winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds.[10] Alexander’s relationship with his father forged the competitive side of his personality; he had a need to out-do his father,[11] illustrated by his reckless behavior in battle. While Alexander worried that his father would leave him “no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world”,[12] he proved that there were greater than his father’s achievements, with his unique campaign as far as to India. Alexander married twice. First, Roxana (Ρωξάνη), daughter of the Bactrian nobleman Oxyartes (’Οξυάρτης) and Stateira II (ΣτάτειραΒ΄),[13]  the Persian princess and daughter of Darius IIIof Persia (ΔαρεῖοςΓ΄τῆςΠερσίαςἤΔαρεῖοςὁΚοδομανός). He apparently had two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon (ἈλέξανδροςΔ΄Μακεδών) of Roxana and Heracles of Macedon (ἩρακλῆςὁΜακεδών)[14] from his mistress Barsine (Βαρσίνη). He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon. Apart from wives, Alexander had many more female companions.[15] Nevertheless, Plutarch described how Alexander was infatuated by the pretty Roxana.

Further, Alexander’s economic abilities were also excellent. He managed the economy of his wars; an enormous campaign from Greece to far East Asia with success and very efficiently and the economic policy of his huge empire was very effective, too. His public policies [revenue, (πόροι,poroe) and expenditures (δαπάναι,dapanae)] were very effective; not only balancing his budget, but generated a surplus (πλεόνασμα), a portion of which was sent back to Macedonia. The cost (δαπάναι) of Alexander’s expedition from 336 B.C. to 323 B.C. was 2,562,018,650 Drs, which was 391,614,286.3 ozs of silver ($6,833,669,296 in today’s silver price). The revenue (πόροι) from different sources was 8,413,850,769 Drs, which was 1,286,089,063 ozs of silver ($22,442,254,150). Then, his surplus was 8,413,850,769 – 2,562,018,650 Drs = 5,851,832,119 Drs or 894,474,776.4 ozs or $15,608,584,854. (Tables 3b, 3c and 4a, 4b). Currencies, coins, salaries and wages are given in Appendix A (Tables 1, 2, and 3a) and in Appendix B and Figure 6.[16] From the economic point of view, this is a good lesson for our pseudo-politicians, today, who have generated an unsustainable national debt that they rollover to the next generations and the countries are facing bankruptcies. Our current social policies are very insignificant and anti-social, especially with the latest vaccine mandate for the Chinese virus and the workers are extremely exploited by businesses and the unregulated markets and banks[17] that make enormous profits, create inflation, redistribute the wealth without generating new one, and avoid paying taxes, too. Then, we need to learn from the past history and be very careful when we exercise our voting right (power).

Furthermore, with the word Hellenization we denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian Empire after Alexander’s conquest. That this export of Greek civilization took place is undoubted, and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of, for instance, Alexandria, Antioch, Seleucia (south of Baghdad) and many others.Alexander sought to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture. This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. Thus, Hellenization occurred throughout this vast region.[18] The core of this Hellenistic culture was essentially Athenian (from the “golden age” of the City); the moral and ethical teaching of its philosophers. The close association of men from across Greece in Alexander’s army directly led to the emergence of the largely Attic-based “koine” (κοινή), or “common” or Hellenistic (Ἑλληνιστική)Greek dialect[19] or the language of the New Testament (ἙλληνικήτῆςΚαινῆςΔιαθήκης).[20]Koine spread throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming the lingua franca[21] of Hellenistic lands and eventually the ancestor of Modern Greek, until the socialist invasion in 1980 that destroyed the Greek language. Furthermore, town planning, education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period were all based on Classical Greek ideals, evolving into distinct new forms commonly grouped as Hellenistic. Aspects of Hellenistic culture were evident in the traditions of the Byzantine (Medieval Greek) Empire up in the mid-15th century and they are still present even in today’s Greece. The entire of long duration Greek culture is based on tradition (Παράδοσις), which is preserved and is transferred from one generation to the other. This tradition cannot be interrupted because the losses will be infinite not only for Greece, but for the entire world.

In addition, Alexander the Great was a gifted man by God (God’s Providence is in control of His entire creation). His role in history is unique and he had all these talents to pursue this historic objective, the preparation of the known world to accept the Revealed Truth, the Messiah, the Son of God, “the Unknown God” of Socrates and of the other Greek philosophers. Actually, Alexander was “the social forerunner”. The divine plan was successful in only twelve (12) years (335-323 B.C.) and was preserved with Alexander’s successors. Alexander’s short life for only 33 years (356-323 B.C.) was enough to accomplish God’s plan for humans’ salvation.[22]  He was successful in all his tasks and of course, in his economic policy and triumphant in his social, foreign, and global policies. It is obvious that if a leader has God’s Providence because he labors for God’s work, he will be very successful for his people and the world. The problem, today, is that our leaders do not receive and do not accept God’s Providence because they do not believe in the True God and their people are paying the cost.

Thus, the role of Hellenism is historic and humanistic –and as time passes the vast majority of people will realize it- because it was able many times in the past to re-orientate humanity. Hellenism is a global movement of ancient moral philosophy combined with the revealed truth of Christianity, the Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage exists in the adoption of the moderation, the spiritual, the eternal, and the truthful, and at the same time in the rejection of the exaggeration, thematerialistic, the transitory, the heresy, and above all the bold lie. How many today understand this unique culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture (ἙλληνορθόδοξοςΠαιδεία, Hellinorthodoxos Paideia)? The race, which possesses this culture, has the unique ability to reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless degeneration of the human civilization left behind in every historic period. The universal ideas of Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating everlasting values.[23] The principles of Hellenism that have changed the intellectual trends of humanity throughout history, have been born to this small geographical region, which for three thousand years obstinately resists the undermining efforts of the controlled “civilized” world and the hordes of barbarians. One representative of this race is Alexander the Great, the Greek Macedonian commander of the army who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism.

As my good friend, Professor ArgyriosVaronides, has said, “If the Skopje regime really seeks recognition and respect as a democratic state, it needs first to learn how to respect history and not to adopt old faded political arguments of past and collapsed regimes. Do they really want to be Macedonians? Then, they are welcomed with open arms to the Greek culture, which after all has been known, thanks to the Thessalonian brothers Methodios(Μεθόδιος) and Kyrillos (Κύριλλος). Otherwise, they ridicule themselves and become irritating.” Consequently, for someone to become Macedonian, he has, first, to become Greek because the true Macedonians were, are, and will be only Greeks (Hellenes of North Greece).

Large sections of countries that dream the non-existent historically “Aegean Macedonia” were historically under Greek control and those countries that transgress against Greece today are “inhospitable of the history”. Greeks will never cease, as the Greek race to claim their lost national lands. It is their national duty to state matters concerning Greek Macedonia, both inside and outside of Greece, exactly as they are to restore the historical truth that expediency, and misguided andcalculating interest continue to counterfeit and distort. It is necessary for the preservation of their unique Greek Orthodox Culture that everyone be in good conscience and that Greece permanently “guard Thermopylae”.[24] This dutymust not be the subject of a transient alert or mobilization, but the constant care of the current and future citizens of the historic country Hellas (Ἑλλάς).

Γ΄. A Small Epilogue

In conclusion, the fact that the ancient Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to be disputed any longer from any prudent man.[25] The new archeological treasures in connection with linguistic analyses and the findings of a great number of new inscriptions and numismatics –all Greek– with rich samples of Greek names prove that there is no discontinuation of either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the Macedonians with the rest of the Greeks.[26]Also, the spreading of the Greek language and the Greek civilization andculture to the entire known world from the Greek Macedonians of the Alexander the Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event.[27] This event is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to light either at the large excavations of Pella (Πέλλα), Vergina (Βεργίνα), Dion (Δίων), and Sindos (Σίνδος), or in dozens less known, like in areas of Voion (Βόϊον), Aeani (Αἰανή), Kozani (Κοζάνη), Kastoria (Καστοριά), Florina (Φλώρινα), Edessa (Ἔδεσσα), Aridaea (Ἄριδαία), Kilkis (Κιλκίς), Kavala (Καβάλα), and of course, Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Amphipolis (Ἀμφίπολις)[28] and Chalkidiki (Χαλκιδική)[Petralona,(Πετράλωνα)][29] and others.

But, in 2018, an atheist, anti-Greek, traitor of his country, the pseudo-prime minister, Alexis Tsipras, betrayed Macedonia and offered it as prey to Scopjeans (Σκοπιανοί). This was the Prespa Agreement, by where the Greek Macedonia ceased to exist and the three thousand years old Greek-Macedonian history was rewritten to satisfy the deception of the Scopje and the ignorance of the envious West. The same policy continues even today with another pseudo-leader (ψευδο-δικτατορίσκον, follower of the Illuminati), Kyriakos Mitsotakis. In Greece, this deeply unpopular agreement had a negative impact on Tsipras’s chances of staying in power. Of course, if justice existed in Greece, he must be in jail for «high treason» (ἐσχάτηπροδοσία).[30]According to separate polls conducted 68% of Greeks were against the Prespes deal and what was contained within it. There were large public demonstrations in 2018 and 2019 against the Prespes deal in Athens,Thessaloniki, and many other Greek cities that lasted days. There were also vast student sit-ins, which affected 210 schools in the entire country. Greece is facing a serious political crisis since 1974 and a new Alexander is needed to clean the country from the “feces of Augeas” (κόπροςτοῦΑὐγεία), the current puppets in power.

The Metropolitan Hellas in 200 B.C.

ΣΩΣΩΜΕΝ

 ΤΗΝ

ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑΝ

[1]Roisman, Joseph and Ian Worthington (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons.

[2]“The outward appearance of Alexander is best represented by the statues of him which Lysippus made, and it was by this artist alone that Alexander himself thought it fit that he should be modelled. For those peculiarities which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the poise of the neck, which was bent slightly to the left, and the melting glance of his eyes, this artist has accurately observed. Apelles, however, in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt, did not reproduce his complexion, but made it too dark and swarthy. Whereas he was of a fair color, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face.  Moreover, that a very pleasant odor exhaled from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh, so that his garments were filled with it, this we have read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus.” See, Plutarch (1919). Perrin, Bernadotte, ed. Plutarch, Alexander. Perseus Project. Also, Plutarch (1936). Babbitt, Frank Cole, ed. On the Fortune of AlexanderIV. Loeb Classical Library. pp. 379–487.

[3] See, «Alexander the Great». Mithec.

[4]Lysippos (Λύσιππος) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century B.C. Together with Scopas (Σκόπας) and Praxiteles (Πραξιτέλης), he is considered one of the three greatest sculptors of the Classic Greek era, bringing transition into the Hellenistic period.

[5] This is the reason that many non-Greek people, even foreign nations (like, the Slavic Skopje), claim that they are Macedonians, descendants of Alexander the Great. (sic). But, this is not true, so it is unacceptable by academics.

[6]Roisman, Joseph and Ian Worthington (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons.

[7] See, Green, Peter (2007), Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age. London: Phoenix.

[8] Greeks are saying, even today, that “behind a saint, there is always a holy mother”.

[9] See, Plutarch (1919). Perrin, Bernadotte, ed. Plutarch, Alexander. Perseus Project.

[10] See, Roisman and Worthington (2010).

[11] From what was the belief of young people in Ancient Sparta: «ἄμμεςδέ γ’ἐσόμεθα πολλῷκάρρονες» [we shall become better (than you)].

[12] Plutarch (1919).

[13]Stateira II (ΣτάτειραΒ΄; died 323 B.C.), was the daughter of Stateira I and Darius III of Persia. After her father’s defeat at the Battle of Issus (November 333 B.C.), Stateira and her sisters became captives of Alexander of Macedon. They were treated well, and she became Alexander’s second wife and her sister, Drypteis or Drypetis, to Hephaestion (Ἡφαιστίων) at the Susa weddings in 324 B.C. After Alexander’s death in 323 B.C., Stateira was killed by Roxana, his first wife.

[14]Heracles of Macedon (327– 309 B.C.) was a reputed illegitimate son of Alexander the Great by Barsine (Βαρσίνη), daughter of Satrap Artabazus (Ἀρτάβαζος) of Phrygia.

[15] As we see, Alexander had been married twice and had many other women companions, which shows his relationships with women. Of course, no ancient sources stated that Alexander had homosexual relationships and we do not see this perversion anywhere in ancient Greece. One Greek virtue was the “shame” (ἡἐντροπή). This was a big lie by some contemporary homosexuals to justify their anomaly (their deadly sin). The vice of homosexuality existed in Sodom and Gomorrah and God burnt them with fire and brimstone. In the 1st century A.D., Saint Paul was criticizing some Romans that were following this deadly sin.

[16] See, John N. Kallianiotis, Political History and Economic Policy of the Greek Civilizer Alexander the Great, Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, July 2020, ISBN: 978-1-53618-072-5.

https://novapublishers.com/shop/political-history-and-economic-policy-of-the-greek-civilizer-alexander-the-great/

[17] See, Kallianiotis, John N. (2019c), “Monetary Policy: Is the Dual Mandate of the Fed Maximizing the Social Welfare?”, International Journal of Economics and Financial Research, Vol. 5, No. 6, June 2019, pp. 112-142. https://arpgweb.com/journal/5/archive/06-2019/6/5https://arpgweb.com/pdf-files/ijefr5(6)112-142.pdf

[18]“What the mind and the heart is for a human being, Greece is for humanity.”Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65 B.C. – 8 B.C.) [Ρωμαῑοςλυρικόςποιητής]. (= Ὅτιτόμυαλόκαίἡκαρδιάεἶναιγιάτόἀνθρώπινοσῶμα, εἶναιἡἙλλάςγιάτήνἀνθρωπότητα). JohannWolfgangvonGoethe (1749-1832) [Γερμανόςσυγγραφεύς].

[19]“Deorum lingua est lingua Graecorum.”(= Ἡγλῶσσα τῶν θεῶν εἶναι ἡἙλληνικήγλὼσσα).

[20]Koine Greek displayed a wide spectrum of different styles, ranging from more conservative literary forms to the spoken vernaculars of the time. As the dominant language of the Byzantine Empire (Romania, Ρωμανία, Ρωμηοί), it developed further into Medieval Greek, the main ancestor of Modern Greek.Literary Koine was the medium of much of post-classical Greek literary and scholarly writing, such as the works of Plutarch and Polybius. Koine is also the language of the Christian New Testament, of the Septuagint (the 3rd-century B.C. Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, “Old Testament”), and of most early Christian theological writing by the Church Fathers. St. Basil the Great and St. Gregory the Theologian studied in Athens in the 4th century A.D.. In this context, Koine Greek is also known as “Biblical”, “New Testament”, “Ecclesiastical” or “Patristic”Greek (and as a good American friend is saying, “this is the language that is spoken in Paradise”). It also continues to be used as the liturgical language of services in the Greek Orthodox Church. This holy language is under persecution the last forty years by the enemies of the Hellenic-Orthodox paideia, as it is also anything valuable and eternal in human civilization.

[21]A lingua franca (plural:lingue francheor lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages, as it is the English language, today.

[22]Also, 33 years was the earthy life of the Son of God, Jesus Christ.

[23]“Nihil Graeciae humanum, nihil sanctum.” (= Τίποτε δέν εἶναι πιό ἀνθρώπινο, πιό ἱερό ἀπό τήν Ἑλλάδα).

[24] As Leonidas (Λεωνίδας) did in 480 B.C. at Thermopylae. See, https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/leonidas

[25] See, Nikolaos Martis, Macedonia, http://www.hri.org/Martis/contents/main3.html

[26] There are series of hundreds of articles by the author examining the Macedonian question from these perspectives.

[27]The interested reader can find  details in the following book of the author, Political History and Economic Policy of the Greek Civilizer Alexander the Great, Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, July 2020, ISBN: 978-1-53618-072-5.

https://novapublishers.com/shop/political-history-and-economic-policy-of-the-greek-civilizer-alexander-the-great/

 

Table of Contents

Preface
Chapter 1              Α΄. Introduction
Chapter 2              Β΄. Alexander’s Expedition and its Expenditures
Chapter 3              Γ΄. Alexander’s Empire: Revenue, Taxes, and Budget
Chapter 4              Δ΄. The Unexpected Death of Alexander and his Succession
Chapter 5              Ε΄. Historic Lessons from the Hellenic Studies for Today’s Economy and Society
Chapter 6              ΣΤ΄. The Hellenic Historical Journey
Chapter 7              Ζ΄. The Current Inflicted Delusion
Chapter 8              Η΄. Conclusion: The Didactic Historical Inferences
References
Appendix Α΄
Appendix Β΄
Appendix Γ΄
Appendix Δ΄
About the Author

[28] See, Amphipolis. https://www.ancient.eu/Amphipolis/. See also, http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/C1.8.html

[29] See, The Cave of Petralona,https://www.chalkidiki.com/petralona/. See also, New Information on the Petralona Skull Controversy, https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology-opinion-guest-authors/new-information-petralona-skull-controversy-001380 . In addition, see, https://www.visit-halkidiki.gr/portfolio-view/petralona-cave/

[30]Ὅρα, Στέλιου Παπαθεμελή, Η παραχώρηση τού ονόματος «Μακεδονία» συνιστά εσχάτη προδοσία!https://www.anixneuseis.gr/%CE%B7-%CF%80%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%B1%CF%87%CF%8E%CF%81%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%B7-%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%8D-%CE%BF%CE%BD%CF%8C%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%82-%CE%BC%CE%B1%CE%BA%CE%B5%CE%B4%CE%BF%CE%BD%CE%AF%CE%B1/?nowprocket=1

.

Σχολιάστε

Εισάγετε τα παρακάτω στοιχεία ή επιλέξτε ένα εικονίδιο για να συνδεθείτε:

Λογότυπο WordPress.com

Σχολιάζετε χρησιμοποιώντας τον λογαριασμό WordPress.com. Αποσύνδεση /  Αλλαγή )

Φωτογραφία Twitter

Σχολιάζετε χρησιμοποιώντας τον λογαριασμό Twitter. Αποσύνδεση /  Αλλαγή )

Φωτογραφία Facebook

Σχολιάζετε χρησιμοποιώντας τον λογαριασμό Facebook. Αποσύνδεση /  Αλλαγή )

Σύνδεση με %s

 
Αρέσει σε %d bloggers: